The genesis of An American in Istanbul occurred in 1985 and 1986 when composer and Fulbright Scholar Edward J Hines resided in Istanbul, Turkey, where he researched the modal systems of Turkish classical and folk music. Hines learned that the modes (makams) of Turkish and Arabic music have roots in the scales of the ancient Greeks, as does Western music. But Hines also learned that the makam system of Turkish music has many more pitches than the 12 tones found in Western music. Many of these extra tones are microtonal in measurement and can sound 'out-of-tune' to the untrained Western listener. It was exactly that 'out-of-tune' quality which fascinated Hines and which led him to his long pursuit of bringing new (Yeni) compositions based on ancient Turkish makams to Western performers and audiences. The series started with the 1989 compositionYeni Makam 1 for solo bassoon and was followed in 1991 with Yeni Makam 2 for solo violin. In 1995 Hines composed both Yeni Makam 3 for solo cello and Yeni Makam 4 for clarinet and percussion duo. The entire cycle of recordings took 4 years, from 1995 through 1999. The four works on this CD feature outstanding performances by Steve Vacchi (bassoon), Veronica Macchia-Kadlubkiewicz (violin), Oreet ranon (cello), Patrick O'Keefe (clarinet) and Terry Longshore (percussion). Each has mastered both the technical requirements and.